It is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Laguna, Philippines.
The town got its name from the term kalawang, which means rust. Calauan is known for the Pineapple Festival, which is celebrated every May.
In 1993, the town became the focus of media attention when Antonio Sánchez, who was currently serving as mayor at the time, got involved into a double murder case involving two UPLB students. Sánchez and several other men were given a life sentence.
The Patron of Calauan is Saint Isidore the Laborer, the patron of farmers.
Calauan's population is expected rise as the town is being used as resettlement of informal settlers in Metro Manila
The Hidden Valley Springs, a popular hot spring resort, although its entrance is situated in the adjacent town of Alaminos, is actually within Calauan's boundaries.